عنوان مقاله [English]
Sphero-conical vessels, called Fuqqa'a, have been found in archeological excavations in many parts of Iran. These vessels were distributed in many Islamic countries from the 4th to the 7th century AH (10th-13th century AD). The original function, shape, and contents have been the topic of debate since the early 1930s. In particular, the issue of materials or liquids stored in these containers has been highly controversial. In this paper, we present the residual analysis of vessels and the study of their fabrics. The investigation of residues preserved in the surface of single potsherds' fabric representing single vessels is a powerful method for ascertaining pottery use.
The National Museum of Iran has a rich collection of Fuqqa'as. Six vessels were selected to be examined and investigated for their contents and bodies. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), polarized light microscopy (PLM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and handheld X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (micro-XRF) were used for the characterization of the compound and structure of the samples taken from Fuqqa'a vessels.
According to the obtained results, these vessels most likely contain organic residue and processed liquids from different grains. Petrographic studies also showed that quartz and feldspar minerals are the main constituents of these potteries, which produced a strong fabric. The study estimated the firing temperature of one of the samples at around 1000 degrees Celsius.